Related subjects

The section is a collection of general subjects related to various aspects of scripophily. Click on the menu at left or from the menu at top to learn more about:

Scanning certificates

Epson Expression scanner

Getting "good scans" of ordinary documents and photographs is relatively easy. Getting "adequate" scans of engraved certificates can be a bit challenging and "good" scans even harder. That is because scanning software expects gradational grays and colors. That is problematic because certificates generally have engraved vignettes and they are composed of closely spaced lines of pure black. This is a special section that considers:

  • problems with auto exposure
  • diminishing show-through and yellowing
  • getting acceptable results
  • scanning resolution
  • what "24-bit color" means
  • what to do about overly large certificates
  • and much more.

Image manipulation

Manipulation of photo shot with cell phone

There is a special section dedicated to techniques for using software to adjust scans and photographs after they've been scanned or photographed. This section covers subjects such as:

  • software to use
  • fixing distorted images
  • sharpening images
  • straightening images
  • removing yellow


These are important dates that affected the issuance and trading of securities in North America, especially those involving railroads.


These are diverse articles about collecting stocks and bonds that I written since 1999. The articles often cover many of the same subjects contained on this website, but either in a little different manner or in greater detail.  "Update" was a physical newsletter mailed to contributors between 1999 and 2009. Articles that have appeared in "Scripophily" (the magazine of the International Bond and Share Society) are more general in nature and talk more broadly about the hobby of collecting. Those have run since June, 2007 to the present. I have also brought into the website that aoppeared in my Coxrail blog, now retired because of lack of time.

Engraving-related subjects

Million dollar fantasy note printed by American Bank Note Co in 1988

This section addresses issues certain common inquiries that I receive that are not related directly to either scripophily nor railroading. Since this site mentions American Bank Note Company many times, I get constant inquiries about million-dollar fantasy notes printed by ABNCo. I also have a page dedicated to bank notes because many people have asked me to catalog those collectibles. (I don't have the time, but I cover the issue of railroad bank notes that were purposely printed to confuse their true natures.)