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Known Lithographic Caricatures of Major 19th Century Millionaires

Notes on Artists' names:

If images are shown below, "artists" represent the names that appear on lithographs. If no pictures are shown, then reports of artists' names should be considered conjectural.

Many published artist attributions have proven erroneous. In many cases, artist's names attributed to double-page artwork has proven to be the name that appears on the cover art.

Notes on names attributed to caricatured Personalities:

There are a large number of errors in published references relative to whose faces appear in caricature.

Jay Gould was the most reviled man on Wall Street, so references to Jay Gould's image have (so far) proven 100% correct.

On the other hand, both web and print references to "Cornelius Vanderbilt" have proven 100% incorrect, even among scholorly works. All images seen so far actually represent William Henry Vanderbilt, Cornelius' son. Cornelius Vanderbilt died in 1877, several years before the most virulent satire of the mid 1880s.

Both Puck and Judge commonly drew Gould, Vanderbilt, and Cyrus Field as a triumvirate of monopolistic evil. However, many web references mis-identify Field as "Sage," and sometimes as "Drew." Field can usually be identified with a very long nose and a mid-length beard that was often shorter in the middle than at the edges.

The smooth-faced Chauncey Depew appears in many Puck caricatures, normally situated among prominent New York politicians. Although connected with the Vanderbilts, Depew was never portrayed as a scoundrel and, consequently, is seldom mentioned in published references.

 

 Puck magazine

Caption: A Very Dull Race-Meeting -- No Public Interest in the Contest

Artist:

Personalities include:
   

Description: Gould on a fat horse and Tilden on a skinny horse at the race course on a rainy day; no one is in the stands

 Puck magazine

Caption: Jay Gould's Detective Monopoly. Chorus of ALL the Detectives and Postmen in the City

Artist: Opper

Personalities include:
   Jay Gould

Description:

 Leslie's magazine
Feb 1, 1873

Caption: Injured Innocents

Artist: Keppler

Personalities include:
   Oakes Ames

Description: Uncle Sam scolds numerous children with the faces of Senators. On the table is the Credit Mobilier pie. Everyone has been in the pie, but everyone pleads innocent.

 Puck magazine
Apr 16, 1879

Caption: Vanderbilt's Seban

Artist:

Personalities include:

Description: German language edition; Vanderbilt flattened by Board of Aldermen on large marble tablet

 Puck (German) magazine
Jul 6, 1879

Caption: WHV Getting Rich From Railroad Franchises of New York

Artist: Keppler

Personalities include:
   William Henry Vanderbilt

Description: Vanderbilt grabs the entire pie that represents the street railways and rail access to the city of New York.

 Puck magazine
Jun 6, 1880

Caption: Our National Dog Show

Artist:

Personalities include:
   Benjamin Franklin Butler
   Jay Gould
   William Henry Vanderbilt

Description:

 Puck magazine
Jan 26, 1881

Caption: Consolidirt

Artist: Keppler

Personalities include:
   Jay Gould

Description: A cartoon showing Jay Gould sitting on a swing made from the wires of the telegraph monopoly, which strangle two statues representing the press and commerce.

 Puck magazine
Feb 23, 1881

Caption: The Two Philanthropists. Don't fret Uncle Sam, we only want to make a bigger man of you.

Artist: Keppler

Personalities include:
   Jay Gould
   William Henry Vanderbilt

Description: Gould and Vanderbilt hoist Uncle Sam to the top of a telegraph pole. Tied to his feet are locomotives. Other poles support a cable that reads "Atlantic Pacific" and "Western Union."

 Puck magazine
Oct 5, 1881

Caption: A Grand Shakesperian Revival (Which We Have But Little Hope of Seeing on the Stage of the National Capital)

Artist: Keppler

Personalities include:
   Jay Gould
   William Henry Vanderbilt

Description: Major politicos including Grant, Arthur and Conkling in Shakesperian garb. Gould and Vanderbilt hold Chester Arthur's regal train.

 Puck magazine
Oct 12, 1881

Caption: Puck's Perplexing Position--Between Two Evils, Well, I want to be an Anti-Monopolist; but not if that is one.

Artist:

Personalities include:
   Cyrus West Field
   Jay Gould
   William Henry Vanderbilt

Description:

 Puck magazine
Oct 19, 1881

Caption: Puck's Own Yorktown Celebration: His Army of Contributors Passing in Review Before Our Foreign Guests.

Artist: Keppler

Personalities include:
   Cyrus West Field
   Jay Gould
   William Henry Vanderbilt

Description: A parade of prominent American politicians passes a reviewing stand of French and German visitors in a sendup of overdone celebrations at the Yorktown Centennial. Among the crowd is Jay Gould, Cyrus Field, and William Henry Vanderbilt. The current Army and Navy sit in tatters at the edge of the parade.

 Puck magazine
1882

Caption: The Monster Monopoly

Artist: Keppler

Personalities include:
   Cyrus West Field
   Jay Gould
   William Henry Vanderbilt

Description: Puck and ordinary men ready to spear a great whale on the ocean. The back of the whale has the face of Jay Gould and the flukes of the tail are shared like the faces of Field and Vanderbilt.

 Puck magazine
1882

Caption: Discrimination--The selfish millionaire, How he is taken care of, and how he takes care of his patrons

Artist:

Personalities include:

Description: Four people attend to two people laying injured on tracks, while eveyone else attends to William Henry Vanderbilt

 Puck magazine
1882

Caption: When Jay Gould Owns the Associated Press -- Puck Will Still Keep His Independent News-Stand

Artist: Opper

Personalities include:
   Jay Gould

Description:

 Puck magazine
1882

Caption: First annual picnic of the 'Knights of Labor'---More fun for the spectators than for the performers.

Artist:

Personalities include:

Description: Gould, Vanderbilt and Field watch from coach as poor people try to climb pole to get food, hungry multitudes beyond

 Puck magazine
Jun 14, 1882

Caption: Our Robber Barons

Artist: Gillam

Personalities include:
   Cyrus West Field
   Jay Gould
   Russell Sage
   William Henry Vanderbilt

Description: Cyrus Field, Russell Sage and Congress, rob the tax-payer. Vanderbilt directs men to carry the plunder up the mountain to "Castle Monopoly" on stairs made of lobbyism, firendly judges, and land grants. A huge chain of protectionism blocks the bay while factories lay closed beyond. Jay Gould overlooks the whole scene.

 Puck magazine
Sep 20, 1882

Caption: The Garden Party of the Monopolists - Louis XV Style; Wile the Court "Beauties are Wooed, the People are Discontented and Threatening

Artist: Keppler

Personalities include:
   Austin Corbin
   Chauncey Mitchell Depew
   Cyrus West Field
   Jay Gould
   Benjamin Franklin Jones
   Miller
   John Roach
   Russell Sage
   William Henry Vanderbilt

Description: Millionaires are seen flirting and cavorting with major politicians (in female form) dressed in French finery. Beyond the iron fence is a view of a crowd of ordinary people.

 Puck magazine
Oct 18, 1882

Caption: The public be damned!

Artist: Opper

Personalities include:
   William Henry Vanderbilt

Description: William Henry Vanderbilt, wearing jewelry, leans back in his chair, one foot resting on a table, the other on an eagle dressed as Uncle Sam. Two dogs, representing Congress and Legislature, are tied to the chair.

 Puck magazine
1883

Caption: The New Member Of Monopoly Lodge Has Taken The "First Degree."

Artist: Opper

Personalities include:
   Cyrus West Field
   Jay Gould
   Russell Sage
   William Henry Vanderbilt

Description: New York Governor Grover Cleveland has just vetoed A bill that would have created a 5ยข fare. Field, Sage, Gould, and Vanderbilt are welcoming him into their club.

 Puck magazine
Jan 10, 1883

Caption: The Gould Game, Kick him out the front door and he comes in at the back

Artist: Opper

Personalities include:
   Jay Gould

Description:

 Puck magazine
Feb 7, 1883

Caption: The Protectors of Our Industries

Artist: Gillam

Personalities include:
   Cyrus West Field
   Jay Gould
   Russell Sage
   William Henry Vanderbilt

Description: Gould, Field and Vanderbilt ride a barge carried above the waves on the shoulders of lesser men.

 Puck magazine
Feb 28, 1883

Caption:

Artist: Opper

Personalities include:
   Cyrus West Field
   William Henry Vanderbilt

Description:

 Puck magazine
Jul 18, 1883

Caption:

Artist: Opper

Personalities include:
   Cyrus West Field
   Jay Gould
   William Henry Vanderbilt

Description:

 Puck magazine
Aug 29, 1883

Caption:

Artist: Opper

Personalities include:
   Jay Gould

Description:

 Puck magazine
Sep 19, 1883

Caption: Monopoly in Hades--How the place will be run, two years after Jay Gould's arrival

Artist: Opper

Personalities include:
   Jay Gould

Description: Cartoon showing Jay Gould as the Devil, presiding over little devils who string wire cables, while telegraph operators work at desks below them. Above them a train-load of anti-monopolists is brought to a terminus. Below the scene, Thurber, Puck, and anti-monopolist editors are tortured in effigy.

 Puck magazine
Dec 12, 1883

Caption:

Artist: Opper

Personalities include:
   Jay Gould
   William Henry Vanderbilt

Description:

 Puck magazine
1884

Caption: Yesterday an Infuriated Mob Almost Lynched a Man Who Looked Like Jay Gould: Probable effect of this announcement upon timid people who think they resemble him.

Artist: Opper

Personalities include:
   Jay Gould lookalikes

Description: A crown of bearded men in a barber shop, most of who resemble Jay Gould. Even a bald man is comparing himself to Gould.

 Puck-German magazine
1884

Caption: Shylock's Bad Bargain:Thou sticketh a dagger in me--I shall never see my gold again.

Artist:

Personalities include:

Description: Bankers, German, Irish and independent voters chase Gould down the street after Blaine loses

 Puck magazine
1884

Caption: Passing Everything on the Road

Artist:

Personalities include:

Description: Winter scene of Gould and William Henry Vanderbilt racing horse-drawn sleighs, passing politicians and other celebrities

 Puck magazine
Jan 22, 1884

Caption: The Slave Market of Today

Artist: Gillam

Personalities include:
   Jay Gould
   William Henry Vanderbilt

Description:

 Puck magazine
Feb 6, 1884

Caption:

Artist: Keppler

Personalities include:
   Jay Gould
   William Henry Vanderbilt

Description:

 Judge magazine
Feb 9, 1884

Caption: A Cold Day on Wall Street

Artist:

Personalities include:
   Chauncey Mitchell Depew
   William Lukens Elkins
   Cyrus West Field
   Jay Gould
   James Husted
   Robert H. Ingersoll
   Joseph M. Medill
   John Roach
   William Henry Vanderbilt

Description: Three millionaires fishing on a frozen lake. The weather looks foul and the millionaires are disconsolate. Jay Gould holds a string of tiny fish.

 Puck magazine
Jun 18, 1884

Caption: The "Three Honest Men" of Wall Street Declare for Blaine

Artist: Opper

Personalities include:
   Cyrus West Field
   Jay Gould
   Russell Sage

Description: Sage, Gould, and Field cross their swords in Wall Street after announcing their support for Blaine.

 Puck magazine
Jun 18, 1884

Caption: The Writing on the Wall

Artist: Keppler

Personalities include:
   Chauncey Mitchell Depew
   William Lukens Elkins
   Cyrus West Field
   Jay Gould
   James Husted
   Robert H. Ingersoll
   Joseph M. Medill
   John Roach
   William Henry Vanderbilt

Description: Several millionaires and Republican journalists hide or shield themselves from a light on the wall that reads, "Republican Revolt."

 Puck magazine
Oct 29, 1884

Caption: Our Merciless Millionaire: Vanderbilt - "The Public Be Doctored."

Artist: Opper

Personalities include:
   William Henry Vanderbilt

Description: Puck is tugging on the coattails of Vanderbilt as he approaches a stage to be congratulated for giving money to a hospital

 Puck magazine
1885

Caption: The Monopolist's May-Pole

Artist: Opper

Personalities include:
   Ezra Cornell
   Ezra Cornell
   Cyrus West Field
   Jay Gould
   Russell Sage
   William Henry Vanderbilt

Description: Several millionaires, dressed in farm garb, dance around a May Pole in a happy scene in "Snug Harbor." Field sits on a safe.

 Puck magazine
Jan 14, 1885

Caption: Puck's Political Hunting Ground - How He Has Made Game of the Politicans

Artist: Keppler

Personalities include:
   Jay Gould

Description: or politicians lay slain after the 1884 election. Puck stands amid the carcasses (as animals) of Blaine, Butler, Dorsey, Kelly, Grant, Conkling, Robeson and Platt. Jay Gould flies away with a lamb in his talons.

 Puck magazine
Aug 12, 1885

Caption: The Two Gobblers: We do not wish to suggest any analogy to the subject of a famous picture representing two Roman Augurs laughing over the Imposition they are practicing on the public.

Artist: Gillam

Personalities include:
   Jay Gould
   William Henry Vanderbilt

Description: Gould and Vanderbilt, dressed as Roman senators laugh. Beyond are cages of lambs. Vanderbilt holds a scroll that reads "West Shore R.R. Grab". At Gould's feet is a bag with three scrolls labeled "B&M Telegraph Grab," "N.Y. 'L' Roads Grab," and "W.U. Grab"

 Puck magazine
Aug 12, 1885

Caption: The Resistless March of Reform. - The "Hostiles" Must Go!"

Artist: Opper

Personalities include:
   Cyrus West Field
   Jay Gould
   William Mahone

Description: Large parade of politicians dressed as Indians being marched away from an advancing tracks labeled "Reform R.R." Hidden among the politicians are Gould and Field. Holding a club labeled "Bossism" is another skinny Indian labeled as Mahone.

 Thomas Durant died
Oct 5, 1885
 Puck magazine
1886

Caption: Taxing the Millionaires. A Few Scenes from the Roaring Farce that is Played Every Year in New York City.

Artist: Opper

Personalities include:
   Jay Gould
   Cornelius Vanderbilt II
   William Kissam Vanderbilt

Description: 4-panel scene concerning millionaires in New York complaining and evading tax assessments.The top scene shows eight Vanderbilt heirs talking to the tax man after the death of William Henry Vanderbilt the previous year. The first two heirs are identifiable as the sons of William Henry. The caption says: "Chorus of Vanderbilt Heirs - We'll pay taxes on $8,000,000 of personal property; but if you ask for any more, we'll move out of town." The bottom left panel shows Jay Gould telling the tax collector how much he will pay, with the caption, "Jay Gould - I can not tell a lie; by close economy and strict attention to business I have scraped together $100,000; now go ahead an assess. "

 Puck magazine
Nov 3, 1886

Caption: The Mephistopheles of To-Day - Honest Labor's Temptation

Artist: Keppler

Personalities include:
   Jay Gould

Description: The Devil is asking a worker to sign a "Pledge to Anarchy." Beyond is a vision of Henry George pouring a huge variety of promises from a cornucopia. Crawling out from a hole at George's feet is Jay Gould.

 Puck magazine
May 18, 1887

Caption: The Poverty Problem Solved; George & McGlyn's Great Millenial Show - They will Promise Anything and Everything for One Dollar

Artist: Keppler

Personalities include:
   Cyrus West Field
   Jay Gould
   Russell Sage

Description: Rev. Edward McGlynn and Henry George (failed Labor candidate for New York Mayor )gather money in a street show. McGlynn points over his head to a Puck cartoon of Gould, Field and Sage in poverty.

 Puck magazine
Apr 18, 1888

Caption: Quality Counts

Artist: Keppler

Personalities include:
   Chauncey Mitchell Depew

Description: Cleveland as a male lion looks down on other lesser animals. A female "Democratic Party"lion holds off a pack of miscellaneous animals, all with heads of famous Republican politicians. Among them is a cat with the face of Chauncey Depew.

 Puck magazine
Aug 22, 1888

Caption: A New Version of an Old Story. Don't shoot...I'll come down for $80 million.

Artist:

Personalities include:
   Jay Gould

Description: Jay Gould is portrayed as a racoon in a tree. Uncle Sam is a hunter, but Gould negotiates a settlement. This is a reference to behavior in the Western Union monopoly.

 Puck magazine
Mar 12, 1890

Caption: None but Millionaires Need Apply; The coming style of presidential election

Artist: Keppler

Personalities include:
   Russell Alger
   Calvin Brice
   Austin Corbin
   Sidney Dillon
   Cyrus West Field
   Henry Morrison Flagler
   Jay Gould
   Collis Potter Huntington
   Benjamin Franklin Jones
   Levi P. Morton
   William Paine
   John Davison Rockefeller
   Russell Sage
   Leland Stanford
   John Wanamaker

Description: Two men ( William Dudley and Matthew Quay) are auctioning the presidential and vice-presidential chairs. In the audience are prominent millionaires. On the stage is a piece of paper indicating that included is a set of eight pieces of presidential furniture including Secretary of State, Secretary of War, Secretary of Navy, Secretary of Interior, Secretary of Treasury, Secretary of Agriculture, Postmaster General, and Attorney General.

 Puck magazine
Jan 22, 1892

Caption: The Little Man's Triumph

Artist: Keppler

Personalities include:
   Chauncey Mitchell Depew

Description: Chauncey Depew is the Master of Ceremonies, leading a GOP parade from Minneapolis. Atop the GOP elephant is Harrison holding a huge Republican party hat that reads "second nomination."

 Cyrus Field died
Jun 12, 1892
 Sidney Dillon died
Jun 17, 1892
 Jay Gould died
Dec 2, 1892
 Leland Stanford died
Jun 21, 1893
 Oliver Ames died
Oct 22, 1895
 Austin Corbin died
Mar 4, 1896
 Collis P. Huntington died
Aug 13, 1900
 Puck magazine
1904

Caption: Puck's Mid-Summer Outing at Harmony Park

Artist:

Personalities include:
   Andrew Carnegie
   John Pierpont Morgan
   John Davison Rockefeller
   Russell Sage

Description: Major politicians and financiers cavort in a happy park scene.

 Puck magazine
Jan 13, 1904

Caption: Jack and the Wall Street Giants

Artist: KepplerU

Personalities include:
   George Gould
   James Jerome Hill
   John Pierpont Morgan
   Henry Oxnard
   John Davison Rockefeller

Description:

 Puck magazine
Mar 22, 1904

Caption: A Kansas David in the Field

Artist: Puche

Personalities include:
   John Davison Rockefeller

Description: The state of Kansas gets ready to fight Goliath in the form of an elderly Rockefeller carrying a club that reads "Standard Oil."

 Puck magazine
Sep 9, 1907

Caption: He Bobs Up Serenely

Artist: KepplerU

Personalities include:
   Edward Henry Harriman
   John Pierpont Morgan
   John Davison Rockefeller

Description: Theodore Roosevelt as a heavy-bottomed doll that keeps bouncing back, no matter how he is knocked down by the major financial powers.

 

Double-page spreads = 300 px, covers = 200 px
Listings arranged in date order

 

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