Collectible Stocks and Bonds from North American Railroads     by Terry Cox

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Railroad events timeline

This is a chronological list of major events that have affected the development and financing of railroads in North America as well as factors that have affected issuance, trading and profitability of railroad securities.

Please contact me with additional events you think should be included. Be sure to alert me to any errors you find.

Apr 2, 1792The U.S. Congress passed the Mint Act which officially set the U.S. gold price at $19.39 per Troy ounce
May 17, 1792Twenty-four securities brokers agreed on rules and created first organized New York stock market
Feb 22, 1804First steam tramway (road, as opposed to railroad) locomotive built in Wales
Feb 6, 1815First North American railroad charter for Camden & Amboy
1815Depression, 1815-1821, caused by pronounced inflation following War 0f 1812, encompassed Panic of 1819 with widespread bank failures
Mar 8, 1817New York Stock & Exchange Board organized; met under Buttonwood tree at 68 Wall Street
1819Panic of 1819, often blamed on the Second Bank of the United States tightening credit, but probably the result of long-declining agricultural prices
Sep 16, 1825George Stephenson operated first steam railway locomotive (Blucher) for Stockton & Darlington Railway in County Durham (northeast England)
Oct 7, 1826First horse-powered railroad (3 miles long) completed in United States at Quincy, MA granite quarry
Feb 28, 1827Baltimore & Ohio Railroad chartered in Maryland
May, 1827Mauch Chunk gravity railroad (9 miles long) built near Carbondale, PA
Dec 22, 1828Baltimore & Ohio completed first section of horse-drawn rail service
Aug 8, 1829Delaware & Hudson Canal Co ran first steam-powered locomotive 'Stourbridge Lion' near Carbondale, Pennsylvania
Jun 1, 1830Mohawk & Hudson became first railroad stock to be officially traded on NYS&E
Aug 28, 1830Peter Cooper operated 'Tom Thumb' - the first locomotive manufactured in the United Stares - on the Baltimore & Ohio Railroad
1830John Stevens invented T-Rail
Nov 21, 1831Construction began on Staple Bend Tunnel, first railroad tunnel in U.S. near Mineral Point, Pennsylvania
Nov 14, 1832John Mason started first horse-drawn streetcar service along Bowery Street in New York
Jun, 1833Staple Bend Tunnel completed as first railroad tunnel in U.S. (901 feet long = 0.17 mi)
Jun 28, 1834The U.S. Congress passed the Devaluation Act of 1834 which officially set the U.S. gold price at $20.69 per Troy ounce
1835Samuel Morse created telegraph based on earlier technology by Joseph Henry, 1830
Jul 21, 1836First railroad in Canada opens - Champlain & St Lawrence
May 10, 1837Banks in New York City stopped payment in gold and silver, precipitating the Panic of 1837. Six-year depression follows
Nov 19, 1837First railroad built in Cuba opens for service (Compañía de Caminos de Hierro de la Habana)
1840Depression, 1840-1843, period of massive foreclosures and serious deflation
1842Brokers began trading stocks too small for listing on the New York Stock Exchange. Since they had no offices, and merely traded on Broad Street, they became known as 'Curbstone Brokers' and 'New York Curb Market.' This outdoors arrangement lasted until 1921.
Mar 24, 1844First message transmitted over telegraph line completed between Baltimore and Washington, D.C.
Apr 13, 1846Pennsylvania Railroad chartered
Apr 25, 1846Mexican-American War (Intervenión Estadunidense en México) declared by United States
Aug 18, 1846British government adopted 'standard gauge' of 4 ft 8-1/2 in, the same as the Stockton & Darlington road
Jan 24, 1848Gold discovered at Sutter's Mll in Coloma, California sets off California Gold Rush which lasts until about 1855
Feb 2, 1848Mexican-American War settled by Treaty of Guadalipe Hidalgo
Sep 16, 1850First railway in Mexico opened - 11 km between Veracruz and Molino
Sep 20, 1850President Millard Fillmore signed first Land Grant Act
Jan 8, 1851Contruction began on Hoosac Tunnel at North Adams, Massachusetts
1851First dispatch of trains by telegraoh
Feb 20, 1852First rail connection between East Coast and Chicago
Jul, 1854Stock market crash caused by discoveries of fraudulent stock issuances in New York & New Haven RR, Harlem Co, and Vermont Central Ry
Jan 28, 1855Panama Railroad completed across Isthmus of Panama
Apr 21, 1856Chicago Rock Island & Pacific train crossed first railroad bridge across Mississippi River between Rock Island, Illinois and Davenport, Iowa
Sep 21, 1856Illinois Central Railroad completed between Chicago and Cairo, IL
Apr, 1857Severe Baltimore & Ohio Railroad labor strike resulted in several deaths
Jun, 1857Panic of 1857, last until Dec 1858 and seriously disrupted European investment in U.S. railroads, serious effects in Midwest
Aug 24, 1857Failure of New York branch of Ohio Life Insurance & Trust Co precipitated the Panic of 1857
Oct 14, 1857Run on bank deposits forced suspension of withdrawals on Wall Street banks. Numerous bank failures
1857St Louis connected by rail to East Coast
Jul, 1858Gold discovered near future location of Denver, Colorado sets off 'Pikes Peak Gold Rush' (even though Pikes Peak is 85 miles to the south)
Apr 12, 1861Confederate forces fired on Fort Sumter, South Carolina, and precipitated the American Civil War
Oct, 1861Overland Telegraph and Pacific Telegraph completed transcontinental telegraph system and quickly merged into Western Union.
Jul 1, 1862Congress passed Pacific Railway act which authorized construction of Transcontinental railroad. Act created Union Pacific Railroad Company
Jan 10, 1863First subway opened in London
Jan 29, 1863New York Stock & Exchange Board changed name to New York Stock Exchange
Aug, 1864Gold hit $261.75
1864George Pullman invented Pullman sleeping car
Apr, 1865Recession, 1865-1867, deflationary period following the Civil War, even though there was subsantial railroad investment
May 26, 1865Confederate Trans-Mississippi Department forces surrendered by signing military convention and essentially ending the Civil War
Nov 6, 1865Investors cornered Milwaukee & Prairie Du Chien Railway Co stock price driven from $40 to $210 and back to $110; many brokerages failed because of inability to cover short sales
Dec 9, 1865New York Stock Exchange occupied new building
Dec 25, 1865Giant Union stockyards opened in Chicago
1865Smelters in Chicago milled first steel rails
Apr, 1866Investors cornered Michigan Southern RR stock; price driven from $84 to $104 and back to $80 within 24 hours. Heavy speculation and 'corners' in Reading, Chicago & Rock Island, Hudson River, Cleveland & Pittsburg and Northwestern
Aug 20, 1866President Andrew Johnson issued proclamation that officially ended Civil War
Nov 15, 1867NYSE introduced stock tickers
Dec 7, 1867Charles T Harvey successfully demonstrated first cable-pulled elevated railway in New York
Jan 16, 1868William Davis patented refrigerator car
Apr 20, 1868New York legislature gave full control of Erie to Jay Gould and James Fisk; Commodore Vanderbilt defeated
Jul 1, 1868West Side Elevated opened between Cortlandt Street and Battery Place in New York
Jul, 1868Jay Gould became president of Erie Railway (the first Gould railroad)
Feb 1, 1869New York Stock Exchange required shares of all listed companies to be officially registered (anti stock-watering decree)
Apr 13, 1869George Westinghouse received patent for automatic air brake
May 8, 1869Open Board of Brokers merged with New York Stock Exchange
May 10, 1869Union Pacific and Central Pacific drove 'Golden Spike' at Promontory Point, Utah and officially completed the transcontinental railroad
Sep 24, 1869Black Friday Panic precipitated by Jay Gould, James Fisk and Abel Corbin (the Gold Ring) to corner the gold market and drove gold to $162, stocks took serious hits and many brokerages failed
Jan 17, 1871Andrew Smith Hallidie patented first cable car
Apr 20, 1871First steam-powered elevated railway operation in New York City
Jan 6, 1872Edward Stokes murdered James Fisk in Grand Central Hotel, New York
Mar 15, 1872Jay Gould forced to resign from board of Erie; replaced by John Dix
Aug 20, 1872William Robinson received patent for closed track circuit signal system which allowed for automatic signalling
Sep 4, 1872New York Sun began exposing Credit Mobilier financing which resulted in huge railroad financing scandal
Nov 20, 1872Gould, Schell and Clark corner Erie stock and drive price from $83.75 on Nov 20 to $230 on Nov 23; prices quickly fell back to $85, seriously hurting Drew and Smith
1872Canadian railroads converted lines to standard gauge of 4 ft 8-1/2 in
1872Vanderbilt interests acquired sufficient Union Pacific stock to install Horace Clark as president
Feb 12, 1873The U.S. Congress passed the Coinage Act of 1873 which officially set the U.S. gold price at $20.67 per Troy ounce
Apr 29, 1873Eli H. Janney patented knuckle coupler
Jun, 1873Jay Gould acquired first Union Pacific shares upon death of Horace Clark
Aug 1, 1873First cable car opened for operation in San Francisco
Sep 18, 1873Jay Cooke & Co failed due to inability of Northern Pacific to repay loans and Cooke's inability to sell securities in Europe
1873Panic of 1873, ostensibly caused by depressed siver prices, speculation in Northern Pacific, failure of Jay Cooke & Co as well as European financial problems
Sep 30, 1873New York Stock Exchange reopened
Oct, 1873Beginning of 'Long Depression' (aka 'Great Depression') that lasted until Mar, 1879, investment in railroads and mining hurt seriously
Nov 26, 1873Hoosac Tunnel completed (25,081 feet long = 4.75 mi, longest in North America until 1916 when exceeded by Connaught Tunnel)
1874first commercial typewriters introduced
Mar, 1874Jay Gould elected to Union Pacific board of directors
Jul 4, 1874Eads Bridge, first railroad bridge across Mississippi River below Missouri River, opened at St Louis
Jan 4, 1877Cornelius 'Commodore' Vanderbilt dies, leaving 95% of his estate to eldest son William Henry Vanderbilt
Jul 14, 1877Railroads decreased pay because of depression which resulted in strikes, labor unrest, and violence; labor unions increased power
Sep 25, 1877Patent filed for first modern stapler (important for the rise in pages of coupons fastened to bonds)
Jan 28, 1878First commercial telephone exchange
Nov, 1879William Henry Vanderbilt sold 250,000 shares of New York Central & Hudson River at 120 per share to J.S. Morgan & Co
Jan, 1880Jay Gould acquired Missouri Kansas & Texas stock and became president
Mar 13, 1882To counter reports of financial hardship, Gould displayed $53 million in stocks and offered to show an additional $30 million
Mar 21, 1882Chicago Stock Exchange organized
1883First railway to operate with power supplied by overhead wire system created by Siemens & Halske put into service in Austria
Aug 8, 1883Southern Pacific and Atlantic & Pacific railroads completed line from New Orleans to Pacific Coast at Needles, CA
Sep 8, 1883Northern Pacific Railroad completed
Nov 18, 1883U.S. and Canadian railroads adopted four standard time zones
May 6, 1884Grant & Ward, Metropolitan Bank and Marine Bank failed and precipitated failure of 15 additional brokers and banks
Jul 3, 1884Charles Dow created stock average (precursor to Dow Jones Industrial Average) which included nine railroad issues (Chicago Milwaukee & St Paul, Chicago & North Western, Delaware Lackawanna & Western, Lake Shore, Louisville & Nashville, Missouri Pacific, New York Central, Northern Pacific (preferred), and Union Pacific).
Sep 4, 1884Telephone service between New York and Boston
Feb 16, 1885Charles Dow modified 'Dow Dozen' to include twelve railroads and two industries. (New railroads: Central Pacific, Central RR of New Jersey, and Delaware & Hudson)
Jan 2, 1886Two companies removed from Dow Average (constituents included Chicago Milwaukee & St Paul, Chicago & North Western, Delaware & Hudson, Delaware Lackawanna & Western, Lake Shore, Louisville & Nashville, Missouri Pacific, New York Central, Northern Pacific (preferred), and Union Pacific)
May 31, 1886Standard gauge of 4 ft 8-1/2 in adopted by Southern railroads
mid-1880s, Typewriters common in offices
Feb 4, 1887Interstate Commerce Act signed into law by Pres. Grover Cleveland; intended to insure reasonable rates, prevent pooling, and stop two-tiered pricing
Sep 29, 1890Congress passed law to require railroads to forfeit unused land grants
Apr 19, 1892Charles and Frank Duryea perfected first automobile
Oct 18, 1892Telephone service between New York and Chicago
Jan, 1893Panic of 1893 caused by run on gold supply, decreased European investment in U.S. securities and increased unemployment rate
Jan 6, 1893Great Northern Railway completed to Scenic, Washington
Feb, 1892Philadelphia & Reading Railroad failed with $125,000,000 debt and led to collapse of stocks on New York market
Jun 27, 1893New York stock market collapsed and began 4-year depression
Apr 9, 1894Dow average modified (constituents included Chicago Burlington & Quincy, Chicago Milwaukee & St Paul, Chicago & North Western, Chicago Rock Island & Pacific, Delaware & Hudson, Delaware Lackawanna & Western, Louisville & Nashville, Missouri Pacific, Northern Pacific (preferred), and Union Pacific).
May 11, 1894Pullman Palace Car Co slashed wages and precipitated strike
Jul 2, 1894U.S. government issued injunction against striking Pullman Palace Car Co. workers
Jul 3, 1894President Cleveland sent U.S. troops to Chicago to enforce injunction; two men killed on July 6; troops withdrawn on July 20
Jan 14, 1895New York trolley employees begin strike; riots followed; strike eventually stopped by New York and Brooklyn militia
Feb 25, 1895Cuban insurrection again Spain began, ultimately ending in the start of the Spanish-American War
Dec, 1895Panic of 1896, a short recessionary caused at least in part by monetary policy, arguments over 'Free Silver' and low U.S. government gold reserves
1896First American-made gasoline powered automobile (Duryea Motor Wagon C0) sold in United States
May 26, 1896Charles Dow created Dow Jones Industrial Average; all railroads moved to Dow Jones Railroad Average
Sep 1, 1897First electrified U.S. subway opened in Boston
Apr 25, 1898U.S. Congress declares war on Spain
Jul 17, 1898Spanish surrender at Santiago Bay, Cuba and end shooting of Spanish-American War
Dec 10, 1898Spain and U.S. sign Treaty of Paris, Spain cedes Guam, Cuba, Puerto Rico and Philippenes to U.S
May 9, 1901James Hill and J.P. Morgan fought with Edward Harriman and Kuhn Loeb over control of Great Northern and Northern Pacific; stock hit $1000/share and precipitated panic and collapse in other stocks
Nov 13, 1901Northern Securities Co formed to control Great Northern and Northern Pacific. Near-monopoly in northern shipping follows, eventually resulting in major trust company
Feb, 1902Southern Pacific Co began construction on 12-mile trestle across Great Salt Lake, Uath and finished in Mar 1904, ultimately replaced by a causeway finished in 1959
Mar 10, 1902Attorney General began prosecution against Northern Securities Company for violating the Sherman Anti-Trust law
May 20, 1902Republic of Cuba formed, although U.S. occupation remain until 1909
Feb 19, 1903Congress passed Elkins Act and outlawed all rebates on published railroad freight rates
Mar 14, 1904Supreme Court ruled against Northern Securities Co. for violating the Sherman Anti-Trust law
Oct 27, 1904First New York subway opened
May 21, 1906Congress passed Hepburn Act which allowed the Interstate Commerce Commission to regulate railroad, pipeline, and terminal rates
Oct, 1907Panic of 1907 precipitated by a 50% drop in the NYSE and numerous runs on banks and an attempt to corner the market on United Copper Company stock
Oct 1, 1908Ford Model T introduced
Jun 18, 1910Congress passed the Mann-Elkins Act which allowed the Interstate Commerce Commission to begin proceedings against railroads, pipelines, terminals, telegraph, and telephone companies in violation of rate regulations
Nov 20, 1910Beginning of the Mexican Revolution (civil war) that followed the election of Francisco Madero and consequent rebellions
Dec 23, 1913Federal Reserve system created after a lingering series of financial panics, particularly the Panic of 1907
Apr 2, 1914Construction began on Connaught Tunnel, British Columbia
Jul 28, 1914Austria-Hungary declares war against Serbia, initiating the start of World War I
Jul 31, 1914New York Stock Exchange closed through November 27 upon declaration of war
Jul 31, 1914Chicago Stock Exchange closed through December 11 upon declaration of war (World War I)
Aug 1, 1914Germany declares war against Russia (8/1), France and Belgium (8/3)
Jan 25, 1915First transcontinental telephone call New York to San Francisco
Aug 29, 1916Congress passed Army Appropriations Act which included clause that allowed the President to take control of any system of transportation during times of war
Dec 16, 1916Connaught Tunnel completed (26,516 feet long = 5.02 mi, longest in North America unil 1927 when exceeded by Moffat Tunnel)
1916All-time peak of Class I track mileage in the United States (254,037 miles)
Apr 6, 1917U.S. ended neutral stance and declared war against Imperial German Government
Aug 10, 1917Congress passed Priority Law which authorized the President to force carriers to give precedence to military defense traffic
Dec 28, 1917President Woodrow Wilson used Federal Possession and Control Act to take possession of 'each and every system of transportation...within the boundaries of the United States;' U.S. Railroad Administration created
Mar 19, 1918United States adopted five standard time zones across the nation and Alaska
Mar 21, 1918Congress passed Railway Control Act to officially control U.S. railway system during World War I
Aug, 1918Seven-month post-World War I recession caused by end of war production, transportation and mining serious hurt
Nov 11, 1918Germany signed Armistice and all major fighting of World War II ended
1918Heavy usage of trucks grew throughout World War 1
Jan, 1920Depression of 1920-21 turned out to be the most deflationary period in American history exceeding that after the Civil War
Feb 28, 1920Congress passed Esch-Cummins Act and created the Railroad Labor Board
Mar 1, 1920Government relinquished control of all railroads
Apr 26, 1920Stock Clearing Corporation established
Dec, 1920Theoretical end (or at least cool-down) of the Mexican Revolution with the election of Álvaro Obregón Salido (even though he too was assissinated in 1928)
1920Over one million trucks on American roads
1921'Curbstone Brokers' ('New York Curb Market') moved indoors
Oct 4, 1922Canada created Canadian National Railway and nationalized system.
Oct, 1923Construction began on Moffat Tunnel between Boulder and Grand Counties, Colorado
Dec, 1923First diesel locomotive demonstrated
Dec 28, 1925Construction began on Cascade Tunnel between Chelan and King Counties, Washington
1925Diesel locomotives production began
Jan 7, 1927transatlantic telephone service between New York and London
Feb 18, 1927Moffat Tunnel completed (32,788 feet long = 6.21 mi, longest in North America until 1928 when exceeded by Cascade Tunnel)
Dec 28, 1928Cascade Tunnel completed (41,183 feet long = 7.80 mi, longest in North America until 1988 when exceeded by Mount Macdonald Tunnel)
Oct 24, 1929Stock prices collapsed on New York Stock Exchange; day became known as 'Black Thursday;' market collapse eventually forced widespread decrease in American commerce and became known as Great Depression
1929'Curbstone Brokers' ('New York Curb Market') renamed New York Curb Exchange
Sep 3, 1930Thomas Edison ran first experimental electric passenger train between Hoboken and Montclair, NJ
Mar 6, 1933President Roosevelt ordered 'Bank Holiday' from Mar 6 to Mar 9 (Executive Proclamation 2039); banks and stock exchanges closed
Mar 9, 1933President Roosevelt extended 'Bank Holiday' indefinitely (Executive Proclamation 2039)
Mar 10, 1933President Roosevelt ordered banks reopened (Executive Order 6073)
Apr 5, 1933President Roosevelt ordered confiscation of all gold coins, gold certificates, and bullion (Executive Order 6102)
Apr 19, 1933President Roosevelt officially took U.S. off gold standard
May 27, 1933Congress passed Federal Securities Act which required full disclosure about stocks offered to the public
Jun 5, 1933Congress nullified all U.S. contracts that promised to repay interest or principal in gold. (House Joint Resolution. 192, 73rd Congress, 1st Session. 'Joint Resolution to Suspend the Gold Standard and Abrogate the Gold Clause')
Jan 30, 1934The U.S. Congress passed the Gold Reserve Act which officially set the U.S. gold price at $20.67 per Troy ounce
Jan 31, 1934President Roosevelt issued Presidential Proclamation 2072 which officially set the U.S. gold price at $35.00 per Troy ounce
May, 1934First streamlined diesel locomotives (CB&Q Pioneer Zephyr) put into service
Jun 6, 1934President Roosevelt signed Securities Exchange Act which created the commission assigned to regulate exchanges and stock transactions
Jun 7, 1934Congress passed Corporate Bankruptcy Act which allowed corporate reorganization with support of two-thirds of creditors
1935Intercity bus ridership exceeded railroad ridership
1937All rail service ended in Belize
Jun 29, 1937The Chamber of Senators nationalized Mexican railroads
Sep 1, 1939World War II (was generally considered) started when Germany invaded Poland, followed by declarations of war against Germany by France and the United Kingdom on Sep 3
Dec 27, 1943President Roosevelt ordered (Executive Order 9412) and Federal takeover of railroads to prevent shutdown by labor
Jan 18, 1944U.S. Army returned control of railroads to private ownership
May 7-8, 1945Germany signed total and unconditional surrender (V-E Day) effectively ending World War II in Europe
Aug 14, 1945Japan signed armistice (V-J Day) ending World War II in Pacific followed by official surrender on Sep. 2, 1945
May 17, 1946President Truman (Executive Order 9727) authorized Federal control of railroads to prevent collapse of transportation system during transportationh strike; strike ended May 25
May 10, 1948President Truman (Executive Order 9957) authorized Army to operate railroads
Jul 9, 1948U.S. Army returned control of railroads.
Jun 5, 1950United States Supreme Court decides that segregation in railroad dining is illegal (Henderson v United States)
Aug 26, 1950President Truman ordered U.S. Army to operate railroads to prevent transportation strike (Executive Order 10155)
May 23, 1952U.S. Army returned railroads to private control
Jan 5, 1953New York Curb Exchange renamed American Stock Exchange
Jul 26, 1953Cuban Revolution began under Fidel Castro
Apr 26, 1956Intermodal containerized shipping started
Jun 29, 1956Interstate Highway System authorized
Aug, 1960Foreign ownership in Cuba nationized, including suagr and railroad properties
Apr 25, 1963President Kennedy authorized Department of Interior to operate Alaska railroads (Executive Order 11107)
Jan, 1970Dow Jones added air lines to Railroad Index of 20 stocks and renamed average to Transportation Average
Jun 21, 1970Penn Central declared bankruptcy, the largest corporate bankruptcy in U.S. history at the time
May 1, 1971AMTRAK created by Congressional Passenger Service Act
Dec 18, 1971President Richard Nixon signed the 'Smithsonian Agreement' which unofficially set the U.S. gold price at $38.00 per Troy ounce
Mar 31, 1972The U.S. Congress passed the Par Value Modification Act which officially set the U.S. gold price at $42.22 per Troy ounce
Sep 21, 1973The U.S. Congress passed Public Law 93-110, 'An Act to amend the Par Value Modification Act' which officially set the U.S. gold price at $42.22 per Troy ounce
Jan 2, 1974Regional Rail Revitalization Act of 1973 created the United States Railway Association that oversaw the creation of Consolidated Rail Corp, aka Conrail
Feb 5, 1976Railroad Revitalization and Regulatory Reform Act decreased U.S. regulations and formed Conrail.
Oct 19, 1976The U.S. Congress passed an act to amend the Bretton Woods Agreement (90 State. 2660) to officially abandon any U.S. currency relationship to gold
Jul 1, 1980Motor Carrier Act partially deregulated trucking industry and increased numbers of trucking companies
Oct 14, 1980President Jimmy Carter signed Staggers Rail Act which further deregulated railroads and led to divestiture of thousands of miles of unprofitable lines and sharp growth in regional lines
Apr 27, 1984Construction began on Mount Macdonald Tunnel, eastern British Columbia
Dec 12, 1989Mount Macdonald Tunnel completed (47,510 feet long = 9.0 mi, longest in North America)
Jun, 2011All rail service ended in Guatamala
2012All rail service ended in El Salvador
Sep, 2021All rail service ended in Nicaragua


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